In most cases, a professional pilot will agree that an unusual attitude in terms of IMC or Instrument Meteorological Conditions is something nobody wants to experience. However, this is a situation that every pilot during training has to learn about. The general norms state that at any point of time the rate of movement of an instrument like aircraft tachometer or any indication related to anything other than basic instrumental maneuvers is when observed to be unusual or strange in anyway, you should consider it as unusual attitude. Once you assume this kind of a situation, you must do a situation check where you need to uplift the cross check speed so that you can confirm the instrument error or malfunction in your speedometer.
The nose-high attitudes are reflected by direction and rate of movement of the altimeter needle including vertical speed needle as well as airspeed needle. The immediately recognizable indicators are equally effective in identifying unusual attitude. The same instruments show the nose-low attitudes but they show it in different directions. You can identify a nose-high altitude when the airspeed is below the desired level. In this case, you need to raise the power as required in proportion to the particular specified level.
This should be followed up by applying the forward elevator pressure to reduce the nose and avert a stall while you correct the bank by deploying well-defined aileron as well as rudder pressure so that the miniature aircraft can be leveled properly and center the turn coordinator ball. Almost simultaneously, the corrective control applications are leveled. In your training, you will also learn about the basic techniques of recovering from nose-high unusual scenarios along with the right use of speedometer or aircraft tachometer.
In terms of nose-low attitudes, there are different indicators such as increasing airspeed, incorrect bank attitude with leveled aileron as well as rudder pressure to a straight flight, raising the nose to balance flight attitude while giving pressure on the back elevator. All controlling elements should be altered simultaneously for smooth and faster recovery. However, at initial training process, it is very important that the trainee should go through a confident process to recovery. One of the very important and instantaneous reactions to nose-low attitude is pulling back on elevator control.
Following the stage of initial control, you need to continue with a speedy cross check for over control as the initial control pressures might be too great. The attitude approaches a level flight as the altimeter movement and ASI needles movement decreases. As the needles stop and go in a reverse direction the aircraft passes through a level flight. With indications of altimeter, turn coordinator and ASI tend to be stable; you must include the attitude indicator within cross check. Checking through attitude indicator, aircraft tachometer, as well as turn coordinator, helps to determine the status of bank attitude. This is followed by corrective aileron pressure and rudder pressure application. Centering the ball is a must as without that, skidding tendencies can take place and slow down recovery. Some of the reasons leading to unusual attitude are icing, wake turbulence, wind sheer, pilot distractions, and technical errors.
To deal with such situations it is very important that you have appropriate training as without that you will be totally lost and you wouldn't know how to cope with the situation and recover the aircraft from this condition.